We found that superradiant gain is independent of quantum degeneracy and determined only by the shape of the atomic cloud and a contained number of atoms. Confusion crosses her face. The superradiant contribution to the scattered radiation is governed by bunching factor b ( k ). A phenomenological theory of nonlinear mode-coupling is proposed in which the scattering problem is solved analytically using the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse. This superradiant-like scaling can be observed for weaker incident intensity if the temperature is reduced, making experimental observation easier.

superradiant scattering st Fig. Consequently, for head-on scattering from a visible laser, the superradiant yield is limited by the transverse size of typical electron bunches driving Compton sources. I present evidence of a novel guise of superradiance that arises in black hole binary spacetimes. scattering angle appears larger than 450 because of the angle of observation. The BEC is illu-minated with a laser beam which is large compared to the size of the BEC. While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acousto-mechanics that superradiant amplification can also occur with a vortex beam directed parallel to the rotation axis. Rayleigh scattering, the scattering of a pho-ton off an atom, is the most elementary pro-cess involving atoms and light. phenomenum of superradiance. We propose two different experimental routes: one must either . Taking the spatial dependence of these fields along the condensate axis into account, we are able to reproduce and explain many of the characteristic features observed in the experiments of Inouye et al . . For perpendicular polarization, directional superradiant scattering of atoms was observed (E to G) and evolved to repeated scattering for longer laser pulses (F and G). Secondly, it allows closer accuracy with realistic experiments, in which diffraction can never be entirely ignored. Generalised superradiant scattering Mauricio Richartz , Silke Weinfurtner , A. J. Penner, and W. G. Unruh Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. S. Inouye, A. P . Recent Work on Kerr Stability and Superradiant Wave Scattering - Volume 64. Superradiant scattering by a black hole binary. While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acousto-mechanics that superradiant amplification can also occur with a vortex beam directed parallel to the rotation axis. However, by simultaneously increasing the electron beam energy and introducing an oblique scattering geometry, the superradiant yield can be increased by orders of magnitude. In particular, we show that the existence of an ergoregion is not sufficient; an appropriate boundary condition, e.g. Smallperturbations ontopofthebackgroundbeamE0 of the form E In a recent MIT experiment, a new form of superradiant Rayleigh scattering was observed in Bose-Einstein condensates. 1999 Jul 23;285(5427):571-4. doi: 10.1126/science.285 . This enables us to observe cavity-enhanced superradiance with both Bose-Einstein . in the cavity, the scattering matrix is tuned to an enhanced, superradiant state. We investigate the scattering process of Bogoliubov excitations on a rotating photon fluid. Superradiant scattering by rotating stars has also recently been studied [11-13]. We further show a unidirectional suppression of optical superradiant scattering, and explain why matter-wave superradiance can occur only when the pump laser is red detuned. In this case cavity induced back-scattering can only couple a small number of selected momentum states. Here, an electron bunch with = 5 m and N b = 10 4 microbunches scatters X = 1.24 nm (U ph = 1 keV) photons from a pulse of N = 10 3. The superradiant yield for head-on scattering as function of electron beam energy. Superradiant light scattering from noncondensed, thermal atomic vapors was experimentally studied. In theory, it's an almost limitless source of energy.". In our set-up, the wave scattering process is described by a s econd order dieren- tial equation and an eective potential determined by the interaction between the. The system we consider is a long cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), pumped by a red-detuned laser field with a space-dependent intensity distribution in transverse directions. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information The superradiant scattering of a scalar field with frequency and angular momentum (w,m) by a near-extreme Kerr black hole with mass and spin (M, J) was derived in the seventies by Starobinsky, Churilov, Press and Teukolsky. experiments to observe superradiance in photon fluids and how our time . A generalization of the semiclassical model of superradiant scattering of light from a Bose-Einstein condensate of dilute atomic gases is proposed. A semiclassical theory of superradiant scattering from Bose-Einstein condensate of dilute gas without the mean- field approximation is proposed. The grey box corresponds to laser wavelengths in the visible regime (400-1000 nm). . One interesting phenomenon is the superradiant scattering of black holes , , , , , e.g., when a charged bosonic wave is impinging upon a charged rotating black hole, the wave is amplified by the black hole if the wave frequency obeys (1) < m H + e , where e and m are the charge and azimuthal number of the bosonic wave mode, H is . PHYSICAL REVIEW RESEARCH3, 023242 (2021) Superradiant scattering of orbital angular momentum beams Cisco Gooding ,1,2 Silke Weinfurtner,1 ,3 and William G. Unruh2 4 1School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z1, Canada 3Centre for the Mathematics and . An essential feature of superradiant scattering from a BEC is the formation of coherent atomic waves, a phenomenon that was tentatively interpreted as the realization of a 'one-atom laser' . bonds under pulsed excitation shorter than the phonon decay . Our main purpose is to reveal the black hole superradiance of electromagnetic waves emitted from the disk surface. Superradiant light scattering from noncondensed, thermal atomic vapors was experimentally studied.

Starting with a wave equation we examine the possibility of superradiance in terms of an effective potential and boundary conditions. The theory of superradiant scattering of light from a Bose-Einstein condensate of a dilute atomic gas, which was earlier proposed by one of the authors, is used to study the spectral-kinetic characteristics of scattered radiation and the evolution of populations of coherent atomic states. We found that superradiant gain is independent of quantum degeneracy and determined only by the shape of the atomic cloud and a contained number of atoms. It is respon-sible for the index of refraction of gases, the blue sky, and resonance fluorescence. Solutions of the system of Maxwell-Schrdinger equations describing this effect as well as the coherent reflection of light and the backward amplification of matter waves are obtained. The boundedness of the scattering matrix shows in particular that the maximal amplification of solutions associated to ingoing finite-energy wave packets on past null infinity I-is bounded.

We consider a very general potential and derive the necessary and sufficient condition to invoke superradiant wave scattering. By varying the ratio of the forcing amplitude to that of the self-sustained oscillation in the cavity, the scattering matrix is tuned to an enhanced, superradiant state. In this paper, we report for the first time that for a minimally coupled scalar field, the absorption cross-section of a Schwarzschild black hole in its ring down phase can be superradiant. In case B, was -4400 MHz and was 800 s. We propose two different experimental routes: one must either . There were afterwards other experiments that observed superradiant scattering off a dilute BEC [18-24]. We propose two different experimental routes: one must either . The incident angles are (a) =34and (b) =60. Pulsed Raman scattering reveals superlinear Stokes emission above a threshold, arising from the stimulated vibrational pumping of mol. V6T 1Z1 Canada and Astrophysics Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 . In theory, if the obstacle is rotating, waves can be amplified in the process, extracting. The superradiant Rayleigh scattering using a pump laser incident along the short axis of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a density distortion is studied, where the distortion is formed by shocking the condensate utilizing the residual magnetic force after the switching-off of the trapping potential. Diverse as these systems are, they can all be distilled down to the same two essential ingredients: a reservoir of energy that can be extracted and a channel for dissipation [14]. Press, W.H. A phenomenological theory of nonlinear mode-coupling is proposed in which the scattering problem is solved . In case A, was -420 MHz and was 6 s.

Superradiant pump-probe spectroscopy was also developed to measure the atomic correlation function, revealing the Doppler-width-limited .

Superradiant scattering by a black hole binary.

Superradiance has been studied quite extensively in the context of static (charged) and rotating black hole spacetime. .

The outgoing Kerr-Schild field is used to describe the disk emission, and the superradiant scattering is represented by a vacuum wave field which is added to satisfy the ingoing condition on the horizon. In this article, we study the most elementary atom-cavity con guration, providing a maximum of control: a BEC interacting with a single longitudinal . The pump and The maximum amplification measured was 14% 8%, obtained for 3.70 Hz waves, in a 6.25-cm-deep fluid, consistent with the superradiant scattering caused by rapid rotation. While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acousto-mechanics . Explanation for the asymmetric X-shape + = Pump beam Scattered light (endfire modes) Optical grating Kapitza-Dirac Diffraction of the matter wave .

The field of view of each image is 2.8 mm by 3.3 mm.

This process, which extracts energy from the orbital motion, is driven by absorption across the horizons and . Wang Z, Niu L, Zhang P, Wen M, Fang Z, Chen X, Zhou X. Opt Express, 21(12):14377-14387, 01 Jun 2013 Cited by: 0 articles | PMID: 23787626

Rayleigh scattering, the scattering of a pho-ton off an atom, is the most elementary pro-cess involving atoms and light.

Our present result opens up an intriguing possibility of observing the black hole . We present a detailed theory of this phenomenon in which condensate depletion leads to mode competition, which, together with the directional dependence of the scattering rate, is ultimately responsible for the observed phenomena. In quantum optics, superradiance is a phenomenon that occurs when a group of N emitters, such as excited atoms, interact with a common light field. Photon scattering imparts a . We analyze the necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of superradiance. While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acoustomechanics that superradiant amplification can also occur with a vortex beam directed parallel to the rotation axis. . This is the first analytical theory on field propagation in matter-wave superradiance that can explain all matter-wave superradiance experiments to date that used a single . Superradiant rayleigh scattering from a bose-einstein condensate Science. The pulse durations were 25 (B), 100 (C and D), 35 (E), 75 (F), and 100 (G) s. We propose two different experimental routes: one must either . Given the right initial conditions, a wave will be amplified as it scatters off the binary. We propose a setup to generate giant Kerr nonlinearity and polaritonic solitons via matter-wave superradiant scattering. In superradiant scattering, a fraction of the incoming mass falls into the black hole, causing the black hole to transfer some of its angular momentum to the remaining mass. We propose a setup to generate giant Kerr nonlinearity and polaritonic solitons via matter-wave superradiant scattering. Soc. All images use the same color scale except for (D), which enhances the small signal of Rayleigh scattered atoms in (C).

We consider a very general potential and derive the necessary and sufficient condition to invoke superradiant wave scattering. The CARL-effect is closely linked to superradiant Rayleigh scattering, which has been intensely studied with Bose-Einstein condensates in free space. A phenomenological theory of nonlinear mode-coupling is proposed in which the scattering problem is solved analytically using the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse. Superradiant amplification of massless waves scattering off Kerr black holes is an important phenomena in curved spacetime. On the frequency side, this corresponds to the novel statement that the . Superradiant Rayleigh scattering in the short (strong) pulse regime 30 ms TOF 1 s-10 s. We study superradiant scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate using a pump laser incident at variable angle and show the presence of asymmetrically populated scattering modes. Due to a planned power outage on Friday, 1/14, between 8am-1pm PST, some services may be impacted. In the experiment a thermal beam is slowed by a Zeeman slower and captured in a dark-spot magneto-optical trap (MOT). By adding a resonator the coherence time of the system, in which the instability occurs, can be strongly enhanced. A semiclassical theory of superradiant scattering from Bose-Einstein condensate of dilute gas without the mean- field approximation is proposed. (a) and (b) Absorption images after 30 ms time of flight. Experimental data reveal that the direction of the pump laser plays a significant role in the formation of this asymmetry, a result which is in good agreement with numerical simulations based on coupled Maxwell-Schr . With these in mind, it is natural to expect that a black Rotational superradiant scattering in a vortex ow Theo Torres1, Sam Patrick1, Antonin Coutant1, Maurcio Richartz 2, Edmund W. Tedford3 & Silke Weinfurtner1;4;5 1School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK 2CMCC - Centro de Matematica, Computac ao e Cognic ao, Universidade Federal do ABC In this paper we show that for frequencies scaled to the superradiant bound the full functional dependence on (w,m,M, J . 1 In gravitational lensing, all geodesics in spacetime bend close to a mass, so that light's "straight" path through space curves. We study superradiant scattering off Bose-Einstein condensates by solving the semiclassical Maxwell-Schroedinger equations describing the coupled dynamics of. These results generalize the temporal coupled-mode theory of [Fan et al., J. Opt. "You bounce electromagnetic waves off the mirrors, drawing rotational energy off the ergosphere, then extract it through a window. Superradiant scattering of orbital angular momentum beams: We consider the wave-structure coupling between an orbital angular momentum beam and a rapidly rotati. By absorption of a photon from the laser beam and emission in the end re mode an atom is scattered forward. We present the results of an experiment on light scattering from an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate interacting with far off resonant laser light. Rayleigh scattering off a Bose-Einstein condensate was studied. We present experimental evidence supporting the postulation that the secondary effects of light assisted collisions are the main reason that the superradiant li Impact of photo-assisted collisions on superradiant light scattering with Bose-condensates | NIST This is the first analytical theory on field propagation in matter-wave superradiance that can explain all matter-wave superradiance experiments to date that used a single .

While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acoustomechanics that superradiant amplification can also occur with a vortex beam directed parallel to the rotation axis. . Superradiant Rayteigh Scattering from a Bose-Einstein Condensate S. Inouye,* A. P. Chikkatur, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, J. Stenger, . Skip to main content. Superradiant scattering with a long and high-power pump beam (T=200 s, I=40 mW/cm2) incident at different angles. Superradiant pump-probe spectroscopy was also developed to measure the atomic correlation .

Photon scattering imparts a . Download to read the full article text References. The spatial distribution effects are essential for clarifying the dynamic process of superradiance in BEC in detail. However, if this energy isn't released, it grows exponentially as the light bounces off the mirrors taking energy from the balck hole, and what was once a black hole engine . The first one corresponds to the amplification of matter-waves due to Raman superradiant scattering from a cigar-shaped BE condensate, when the recoiled and the condensed atoms are in different internal states. By varying the ratio of the forcing amplitude to that of the self-sustained oscillation in the cavity, the scattering matrix is tuned to an enhanced, superradiant state. even if the black hole is the bomb.

We describe the setup to create a large Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) containing more than 120 million atoms. . All SPIE . In our set-up, the wave scattering process is described by a second order differential equation and an effective potential determined by the interaction between the incident wave and the scattering obstacle. Answer (1 of 2): You can't blow up a black hole with a bomb. This process, which extracts energy from the orbital motion, is driven by absorption across the horizons and . superradiant scattering theory [2]: (1) spontaneous and subsequent stimulated Rayleigh scattering along the high gain (the long axis of the condensate) direction, (2) scat-tered atoms interfere with the local condensate and form a matter-wave grating that further enhances stimulated Rayleigh scattering, and (3) matter-wave amplication. The system we consider is a long cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), pumped by a red-detuned laser eld with a space-dependent intensity distribution in transverse directions. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. It is respon-sible for the index of refraction of gases, the blue sky, and resonance fluorescence. Solutions of the system of Maxwell-Schrdinger equations describing this effect as well as the coherent reflection of light and the backward amplification of matter waves are obtained. Superradiant scattering from BEC with the incident light applied along the long axis has been investigated. This process can be divided into absorption of a photon and subsequent spontaneous emis-sion. Also the atom pair production by superradiant backward-scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated.

Waves scattered at a resonant cavity are amplified through nonlinear coupling with a self-oscillating mode.

Asymmetry of the X-shaped pattern. When an incident wave scatters off of an obstacle, it is partially reflected and partially transmitted. (Yes, black holes spin. We observed that waves propagating on the surface of water can be amplified after being scattered by a draining vortex. In geometrized units we ha. "Superradiant scattering," he explains. only ingoing group velocity waves at an event horizon . We found that superradiant gain is independent of quantum degeneracy and determined only by the shape of the atomic cloud and a contained number of atoms. Absorption images of the atomic density distribution were taken after 30 ms of ballistic expansion. This makes the process resonant, which gives full control over the number of atoms in the different recoil modes. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Due to superradiant Rayleigh scattering a.

1.3: Schematic representation of the superradiant scattering. If the wavelength of the light is much greater than the separation of the emitters, then the emitters interact with the light in a collective and coherent fashion. Firstly, we will show that superradiant scattering persists beyond the analogy with gravity and curved spacetime deep into the dispersive regime. The pump and the scattered fields .

Am. We find that very small variation of the atomic density distribution would induce remarkable . I present evidence of a novel guise of superradiance that arises in black hole binary spacetimes. Also the scattered atoms can act as a source for . The field of view of each absorption image is 1.91.4mm. to the kinetic energy transferred to a resting atom by back-scattering of a single photon. We study superradiant scattering off Bose-Einstein condensates by solving the semiclassical Maxwell-Schroedinger equations describing the coupled dynamics of matter-wave and optical fields. . The latter allows us to give a time-domain theory of superradiant reflection. In our experiment the energy in the process is conserved by using a pulse with two frequencies. and Teukolsky, S.A. (1972) Floating Orbits, Superradiant Scattering and the Black-Hole Bomb. Nature, 238, 211-212. The upper bound for energy extraction from a black hole can be found from the Christodoulou-Ruffini mass to find the irreducible mass, \mathcal{M}_{irr}, of a black hole. Given the right initial conditions, a wave will be amplified as it scatters off the binary. Provided that all electrons have identical initial velocities, which we will refer to as the cold beam approximation, and assuming we can neglect Coulombic interactions, the bunching factor is written as: Details of the process can be found in an outstanding work by Press and Teukolsky (ApJ193, 443 (1974)), but extensive tables and routines to compute them are lacking. The main mechanism is stimulated Raman scattering in two-level atoms, which occurs in a superradiant way. "Kaidan, what". We expect our experimental findings to be relevant to . Asymmetric superradiant scattering and abnormal mode amplification induced by atomic density distortion. We further show a unidirectional suppression of optical superradiant scattering, and explain why matter-wave superradiance can occur only when the pump laser is red detuned. Superradiant light scattering from noncondensed, thermal atomic vapors was experimentally studied. In our set-up, the wave scattering process is described by a second order differential equation and an effective potential determined by the interaction between the incident wave and the scattering obstacle. "I'm sorry," Liara says, brow furrowed in frustration. Superradiant pump-probe spectroscopy was also developed to measure the atomic correlation . Superradiant scattering of a laser beam (arrow) from a Bose-Einstein condensate in the short-pulse ( A) and long-pulse ( B) limit. In weak-pulse regime the obvious asymmetrical spatial distribution has been observed. ri] (relativity) The scattering of radiation from a black hole in such a way that the scattered radiation carries more energy than the incident radiation. This process can be divided into absorption of a photon and subsequent spontaneous emis-sion. Which depict putting mirrors around a black hole in a dyson sphere type of configuration and shining light into it to harness its energy through superradiant scattering. A number of effects connected with the backward recoil of atoms in this scattering are explained. Exposing an elongated condensate to a single off-resonant laser beam resulted in the observation of highly directional scattering of light and atoms. As one application of super-radiant scattering, Misner has suggested the possible existence of "floating orbits", that is, orbits in which a particle radiatively extracts energy from the hole at. Using the language of Noether currents we demonstrate the occurrence of a resonant amplification phenomenon, which reduces to the standard superradiance in the hydrodynamic limit.

superradiant scattering st Fig. Consequently, for head-on scattering from a visible laser, the superradiant yield is limited by the transverse size of typical electron bunches driving Compton sources. I present evidence of a novel guise of superradiance that arises in black hole binary spacetimes. scattering angle appears larger than 450 because of the angle of observation. The BEC is illu-minated with a laser beam which is large compared to the size of the BEC. While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acousto-mechanics that superradiant amplification can also occur with a vortex beam directed parallel to the rotation axis. Rayleigh scattering, the scattering of a pho-ton off an atom, is the most elementary pro-cess involving atoms and light. phenomenum of superradiance. We propose two different experimental routes: one must either . Taking the spatial dependence of these fields along the condensate axis into account, we are able to reproduce and explain many of the characteristic features observed in the experiments of Inouye et al . . For perpendicular polarization, directional superradiant scattering of atoms was observed (E to G) and evolved to repeated scattering for longer laser pulses (F and G). Secondly, it allows closer accuracy with realistic experiments, in which diffraction can never be entirely ignored. Generalised superradiant scattering Mauricio Richartz , Silke Weinfurtner , A. J. Penner, and W. G. Unruh Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. S. Inouye, A. P . Recent Work on Kerr Stability and Superradiant Wave Scattering - Volume 64. Superradiant scattering by a black hole binary. While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acousto-mechanics that superradiant amplification can also occur with a vortex beam directed parallel to the rotation axis. However, by simultaneously increasing the electron beam energy and introducing an oblique scattering geometry, the superradiant yield can be increased by orders of magnitude. In particular, we show that the existence of an ergoregion is not sufficient; an appropriate boundary condition, e.g. Smallperturbations ontopofthebackgroundbeamE0 of the form E In a recent MIT experiment, a new form of superradiant Rayleigh scattering was observed in Bose-Einstein condensates. 1999 Jul 23;285(5427):571-4. doi: 10.1126/science.285 . This enables us to observe cavity-enhanced superradiance with both Bose-Einstein . in the cavity, the scattering matrix is tuned to an enhanced, superradiant state. We investigate the scattering process of Bogoliubov excitations on a rotating photon fluid. Superradiant scattering by rotating stars has also recently been studied [11-13]. We further show a unidirectional suppression of optical superradiant scattering, and explain why matter-wave superradiance can occur only when the pump laser is red detuned. In this case cavity induced back-scattering can only couple a small number of selected momentum states. Here, an electron bunch with = 5 m and N b = 10 4 microbunches scatters X = 1.24 nm (U ph = 1 keV) photons from a pulse of N = 10 3. The superradiant yield for head-on scattering as function of electron beam energy. Superradiant light scattering from noncondensed, thermal atomic vapors was experimentally studied. In theory, it's an almost limitless source of energy.". In our set-up, the wave scattering process is described by a s econd order dieren- tial equation and an eective potential determined by the interaction between the. The system we consider is a long cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), pumped by a red-detuned laser field with a space-dependent intensity distribution in transverse directions. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information The superradiant scattering of a scalar field with frequency and angular momentum (w,m) by a near-extreme Kerr black hole with mass and spin (M, J) was derived in the seventies by Starobinsky, Churilov, Press and Teukolsky. experiments to observe superradiance in photon fluids and how our time . A generalization of the semiclassical model of superradiant scattering of light from a Bose-Einstein condensate of dilute atomic gases is proposed. A semiclassical theory of superradiant scattering from Bose-Einstein condensate of dilute gas without the mean- field approximation is proposed. The grey box corresponds to laser wavelengths in the visible regime (400-1000 nm). . One interesting phenomenon is the superradiant scattering of black holes , , , , , e.g., when a charged bosonic wave is impinging upon a charged rotating black hole, the wave is amplified by the black hole if the wave frequency obeys (1) < m H + e , where e and m are the charge and azimuthal number of the bosonic wave mode, H is . PHYSICAL REVIEW RESEARCH3, 023242 (2021) Superradiant scattering of orbital angular momentum beams Cisco Gooding ,1,2 Silke Weinfurtner,1 ,3 and William G. Unruh2 4 1School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z1, Canada 3Centre for the Mathematics and . An essential feature of superradiant scattering from a BEC is the formation of coherent atomic waves, a phenomenon that was tentatively interpreted as the realization of a 'one-atom laser' . bonds under pulsed excitation shorter than the phonon decay . Our main purpose is to reveal the black hole superradiance of electromagnetic waves emitted from the disk surface. Superradiant light scattering from noncondensed, thermal atomic vapors was experimentally studied.

Starting with a wave equation we examine the possibility of superradiance in terms of an effective potential and boundary conditions. The theory of superradiant scattering of light from a Bose-Einstein condensate of a dilute atomic gas, which was earlier proposed by one of the authors, is used to study the spectral-kinetic characteristics of scattered radiation and the evolution of populations of coherent atomic states. We found that superradiant gain is independent of quantum degeneracy and determined only by the shape of the atomic cloud and a contained number of atoms. It is respon-sible for the index of refraction of gases, the blue sky, and resonance fluorescence. Solutions of the system of Maxwell-Schrdinger equations describing this effect as well as the coherent reflection of light and the backward amplification of matter waves are obtained. The boundedness of the scattering matrix shows in particular that the maximal amplification of solutions associated to ingoing finite-energy wave packets on past null infinity I-is bounded.

We consider a very general potential and derive the necessary and sufficient condition to invoke superradiant wave scattering. By varying the ratio of the forcing amplitude to that of the self-sustained oscillation in the cavity, the scattering matrix is tuned to an enhanced, superradiant state. In this paper, we report for the first time that for a minimally coupled scalar field, the absorption cross-section of a Schwarzschild black hole in its ring down phase can be superradiant. In case B, was -4400 MHz and was 800 s. We propose two different experimental routes: one must either . There were afterwards other experiments that observed superradiant scattering off a dilute BEC [18-24]. We propose two different experimental routes: one must either . The incident angles are (a) =34and (b) =60. Pulsed Raman scattering reveals superlinear Stokes emission above a threshold, arising from the stimulated vibrational pumping of mol. V6T 1Z1 Canada and Astrophysics Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 . In theory, if the obstacle is rotating, waves can be amplified in the process, extracting. The superradiant Rayleigh scattering using a pump laser incident along the short axis of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a density distortion is studied, where the distortion is formed by shocking the condensate utilizing the residual magnetic force after the switching-off of the trapping potential. Diverse as these systems are, they can all be distilled down to the same two essential ingredients: a reservoir of energy that can be extracted and a channel for dissipation [14]. Press, W.H. A phenomenological theory of nonlinear mode-coupling is proposed in which the scattering problem is solved . In case A, was -420 MHz and was 6 s.

Superradiant pump-probe spectroscopy was also developed to measure the atomic correlation function, revealing the Doppler-width-limited .

Superradiant scattering by a black hole binary.

Superradiance has been studied quite extensively in the context of static (charged) and rotating black hole spacetime. .

The outgoing Kerr-Schild field is used to describe the disk emission, and the superradiant scattering is represented by a vacuum wave field which is added to satisfy the ingoing condition on the horizon. In this article, we study the most elementary atom-cavity con guration, providing a maximum of control: a BEC interacting with a single longitudinal . The pump and The maximum amplification measured was 14% 8%, obtained for 3.70 Hz waves, in a 6.25-cm-deep fluid, consistent with the superradiant scattering caused by rapid rotation. While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acousto-mechanics . Explanation for the asymmetric X-shape + = Pump beam Scattered light (endfire modes) Optical grating Kapitza-Dirac Diffraction of the matter wave .

The field of view of each image is 2.8 mm by 3.3 mm.

This process, which extracts energy from the orbital motion, is driven by absorption across the horizons and . Wang Z, Niu L, Zhang P, Wen M, Fang Z, Chen X, Zhou X. Opt Express, 21(12):14377-14387, 01 Jun 2013 Cited by: 0 articles | PMID: 23787626

Rayleigh scattering, the scattering of a pho-ton off an atom, is the most elementary pro-cess involving atoms and light.

Our present result opens up an intriguing possibility of observing the black hole . We present a detailed theory of this phenomenon in which condensate depletion leads to mode competition, which, together with the directional dependence of the scattering rate, is ultimately responsible for the observed phenomena. In quantum optics, superradiance is a phenomenon that occurs when a group of N emitters, such as excited atoms, interact with a common light field. Photon scattering imparts a . We analyze the necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of superradiance. While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acoustomechanics that superradiant amplification can also occur with a vortex beam directed parallel to the rotation axis. . This is the first analytical theory on field propagation in matter-wave superradiance that can explain all matter-wave superradiance experiments to date that used a single . Superradiant rayleigh scattering from a bose-einstein condensate Science. The pulse durations were 25 (B), 100 (C and D), 35 (E), 75 (F), and 100 (G) s. We propose two different experimental routes: one must either . Given the right initial conditions, a wave will be amplified as it scatters off the binary. We propose a setup to generate giant Kerr nonlinearity and polaritonic solitons via matter-wave superradiant scattering. In superradiant scattering, a fraction of the incoming mass falls into the black hole, causing the black hole to transfer some of its angular momentum to the remaining mass. We propose a setup to generate giant Kerr nonlinearity and polaritonic solitons via matter-wave superradiant scattering. Soc. All images use the same color scale except for (D), which enhances the small signal of Rayleigh scattered atoms in (C).

We consider a very general potential and derive the necessary and sufficient condition to invoke superradiant wave scattering. The CARL-effect is closely linked to superradiant Rayleigh scattering, which has been intensely studied with Bose-Einstein condensates in free space. A phenomenological theory of nonlinear mode-coupling is proposed in which the scattering problem is solved analytically using the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse. Superradiant amplification of massless waves scattering off Kerr black holes is an important phenomena in curved spacetime. On the frequency side, this corresponds to the novel statement that the . Superradiant Rayleigh scattering in the short (strong) pulse regime 30 ms TOF 1 s-10 s. We study superradiant scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate using a pump laser incident at variable angle and show the presence of asymmetrically populated scattering modes. Due to a planned power outage on Friday, 1/14, between 8am-1pm PST, some services may be impacted. In the experiment a thermal beam is slowed by a Zeeman slower and captured in a dark-spot magneto-optical trap (MOT). By adding a resonator the coherence time of the system, in which the instability occurs, can be strongly enhanced. A semiclassical theory of superradiant scattering from Bose-Einstein condensate of dilute gas without the mean- field approximation is proposed. (a) and (b) Absorption images after 30 ms time of flight. Experimental data reveal that the direction of the pump laser plays a significant role in the formation of this asymmetry, a result which is in good agreement with numerical simulations based on coupled Maxwell-Schr . With these in mind, it is natural to expect that a black Rotational superradiant scattering in a vortex ow Theo Torres1, Sam Patrick1, Antonin Coutant1, Maurcio Richartz 2, Edmund W. Tedford3 & Silke Weinfurtner1;4;5 1School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK 2CMCC - Centro de Matematica, Computac ao e Cognic ao, Universidade Federal do ABC In this paper we show that for frequencies scaled to the superradiant bound the full functional dependence on (w,m,M, J . 1 In gravitational lensing, all geodesics in spacetime bend close to a mass, so that light's "straight" path through space curves. We study superradiant scattering off Bose-Einstein condensates by solving the semiclassical Maxwell-Schroedinger equations describing the coupled dynamics of. These results generalize the temporal coupled-mode theory of [Fan et al., J. Opt. "You bounce electromagnetic waves off the mirrors, drawing rotational energy off the ergosphere, then extract it through a window. Superradiant scattering of orbital angular momentum beams: We consider the wave-structure coupling between an orbital angular momentum beam and a rapidly rotati. By absorption of a photon from the laser beam and emission in the end re mode an atom is scattered forward. We present the results of an experiment on light scattering from an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate interacting with far off resonant laser light. Rayleigh scattering off a Bose-Einstein condensate was studied. We present experimental evidence supporting the postulation that the secondary effects of light assisted collisions are the main reason that the superradiant li Impact of photo-assisted collisions on superradiant light scattering with Bose-condensates | NIST This is the first analytical theory on field propagation in matter-wave superradiance that can explain all matter-wave superradiance experiments to date that used a single .

While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acoustomechanics that superradiant amplification can also occur with a vortex beam directed parallel to the rotation axis. . Superradiant Rayteigh Scattering from a Bose-Einstein Condensate S. Inouye,* A. P. Chikkatur, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, J. Stenger, . Skip to main content. Superradiant scattering with a long and high-power pump beam (T=200 s, I=40 mW/cm2) incident at different angles. Superradiant pump-probe spectroscopy was also developed to measure the atomic correlation .

Photon scattering imparts a . Download to read the full article text References. The spatial distribution effects are essential for clarifying the dynamic process of superradiance in BEC in detail. However, if this energy isn't released, it grows exponentially as the light bounces off the mirrors taking energy from the balck hole, and what was once a black hole engine . The first one corresponds to the amplification of matter-waves due to Raman superradiant scattering from a cigar-shaped BE condensate, when the recoiled and the condensed atoms are in different internal states. By varying the ratio of the forcing amplitude to that of the self-sustained oscillation in the cavity, the scattering matrix is tuned to an enhanced, superradiant state. even if the black hole is the bomb.

We describe the setup to create a large Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) containing more than 120 million atoms. . All SPIE . In our set-up, the wave scattering process is described by a second order differential equation and an effective potential determined by the interaction between the incident wave and the scattering obstacle. Answer (1 of 2): You can't blow up a black hole with a bomb. This process, which extracts energy from the orbital motion, is driven by absorption across the horizons and . superradiant scattering theory [2]: (1) spontaneous and subsequent stimulated Rayleigh scattering along the high gain (the long axis of the condensate) direction, (2) scat-tered atoms interfere with the local condensate and form a matter-wave grating that further enhances stimulated Rayleigh scattering, and (3) matter-wave amplication. The system we consider is a long cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), pumped by a red-detuned laser eld with a space-dependent intensity distribution in transverse directions. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. It is respon-sible for the index of refraction of gases, the blue sky, and resonance fluorescence. Solutions of the system of Maxwell-Schrdinger equations describing this effect as well as the coherent reflection of light and the backward amplification of matter waves are obtained. Superradiant scattering from BEC with the incident light applied along the long axis has been investigated. This process can be divided into absorption of a photon and subsequent spontaneous emis-sion. Also the atom pair production by superradiant backward-scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated.

Waves scattered at a resonant cavity are amplified through nonlinear coupling with a self-oscillating mode.

Asymmetry of the X-shaped pattern. When an incident wave scatters off of an obstacle, it is partially reflected and partially transmitted. (Yes, black holes spin. We observed that waves propagating on the surface of water can be amplified after being scattered by a draining vortex. In geometrized units we ha. "Superradiant scattering," he explains. only ingoing group velocity waves at an event horizon . We found that superradiant gain is independent of quantum degeneracy and determined only by the shape of the atomic cloud and a contained number of atoms. Absorption images of the atomic density distribution were taken after 30 ms of ballistic expansion. This makes the process resonant, which gives full control over the number of atoms in the different recoil modes. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Due to superradiant Rayleigh scattering a.

1.3: Schematic representation of the superradiant scattering. If the wavelength of the light is much greater than the separation of the emitters, then the emitters interact with the light in a collective and coherent fashion. Firstly, we will show that superradiant scattering persists beyond the analogy with gravity and curved spacetime deep into the dispersive regime. The pump and the scattered fields .

Am. We find that very small variation of the atomic density distribution would induce remarkable . I present evidence of a novel guise of superradiance that arises in black hole binary spacetimes. Also the scattered atoms can act as a source for . The field of view of each absorption image is 1.91.4mm. to the kinetic energy transferred to a resting atom by back-scattering of a single photon. We study superradiant scattering off Bose-Einstein condensates by solving the semiclassical Maxwell-Schroedinger equations describing the coupled dynamics of matter-wave and optical fields. . The latter allows us to give a time-domain theory of superradiant reflection. In our experiment the energy in the process is conserved by using a pulse with two frequencies. and Teukolsky, S.A. (1972) Floating Orbits, Superradiant Scattering and the Black-Hole Bomb. Nature, 238, 211-212. The upper bound for energy extraction from a black hole can be found from the Christodoulou-Ruffini mass to find the irreducible mass, \mathcal{M}_{irr}, of a black hole. Given the right initial conditions, a wave will be amplified as it scatters off the binary. Provided that all electrons have identical initial velocities, which we will refer to as the cold beam approximation, and assuming we can neglect Coulombic interactions, the bunching factor is written as: Details of the process can be found in an outstanding work by Press and Teukolsky (ApJ193, 443 (1974)), but extensive tables and routines to compute them are lacking. The main mechanism is stimulated Raman scattering in two-level atoms, which occurs in a superradiant way. "Kaidan, what". We expect our experimental findings to be relevant to . Asymmetric superradiant scattering and abnormal mode amplification induced by atomic density distortion. We further show a unidirectional suppression of optical superradiant scattering, and explain why matter-wave superradiance can occur only when the pump laser is red detuned. Superradiant light scattering from noncondensed, thermal atomic vapors was experimentally studied. In our set-up, the wave scattering process is described by a second order differential equation and an effective potential determined by the interaction between the incident wave and the scattering obstacle. "I'm sorry," Liara says, brow furrowed in frustration. Superradiant pump-probe spectroscopy was also developed to measure the atomic correlation . Superradiant scattering of a laser beam (arrow) from a Bose-Einstein condensate in the short-pulse ( A) and long-pulse ( B) limit. In weak-pulse regime the obvious asymmetrical spatial distribution has been observed. ri] (relativity) The scattering of radiation from a black hole in such a way that the scattered radiation carries more energy than the incident radiation. This process can be divided into absorption of a photon and subsequent spontaneous emis-sion. Which depict putting mirrors around a black hole in a dyson sphere type of configuration and shining light into it to harness its energy through superradiant scattering. A number of effects connected with the backward recoil of atoms in this scattering are explained. Exposing an elongated condensate to a single off-resonant laser beam resulted in the observation of highly directional scattering of light and atoms. As one application of super-radiant scattering, Misner has suggested the possible existence of "floating orbits", that is, orbits in which a particle radiatively extracts energy from the hole at. Using the language of Noether currents we demonstrate the occurrence of a resonant amplification phenomenon, which reduces to the standard superradiance in the hydrodynamic limit.